Depression Amongst Expecting Fathers

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Depression does not only affect expectant mothers.

here DepressionDepression affects between 10 and 30 percent of women during pregnancy, with rates increasing substantially after giving birth.[1] On the other hand, little is known regarding depression in expectant and new fathers, although recently it has become acknowledged as a prevalent occurrence.[2] Assistant Professor in the Division of Community Health and Research at Eastern Virginia Medical School in Norfolk, James F. Paulson, Ph.D. discusses prenatal and postpartum depression in fathers in his article “Focusing on Depression in Expectant and New Fathers.”[3]

http://mediaeffectivegroup.pl/?jiiopaa=opcje-binarne-poradnik-dla-pocz%C4%85tkuj%C4%85cych&88e=be While prenatal and postpartum depression has historically been viewed as a female phenomenon, medical and mental health providers now recognize that it may affect both mothers and fathers.[4] Healthcare providers state that depression is often caused by both biochemical changes in the mother’s body, experienced during pregnancy and childbirth, as well as by psychosocial stressors, such as gender role demands, unsatisfied attachment needs, and disruptions in interpersonal relationships.3 On the other hand, it is relatively unclear what causes depression in fathers, as they are not subjected to biochemical changes; however, psychosocial stressors are still present, and fathers often experience distress related to their new role as a parent.3 In fact, postpartum depression in fathers has a prevalence rate that is estimated to be between 1.2 and 25.5 percent.[5]

Paternal depression may also affect the child’s development.

http://sepakbolaonline.org/?biomwd=iqoption-dem&690=31 Maternal depression is known to affect the child’s development and mental health, and the same is to be believed regarding paternal depression.2 According to Paulson, it is important to identify paternal depression as the quantity and quality of the father’s involvement with their infant may affect their developmental outcomes.[6] A study conducted in 2005 found that increases in paternal depression measured at eight weeks postpartum were associated with an increase in child internalizing and externalizing behavior problems at 3.5 years.[7] Also, other studies state that paternal depression is associated with reduced father-child activities and bonding, as well as increased parenting stress and discord in the relationship with the child’s mother.[8] Paulson and his colleagues found that nine-month-old children of depressed fathers experienced a significant reduction in positive parent-child interactions, such as playing, singing, reading, and telling stories.[9]

Causes of paternal depression: not well understood.

ücretsiz forex semineri Again, the causes of paternal depression are not well understood.3 According to Paulson, a history of depression and other mental illness is always a strong predictor.3 Family structural problems, such as separation and divorce, also increase the risk of depression.[10] However, very specifically, maternal depression has a strong association with paternal depression, and several studies have found this correlation to be strong.3 In fact, the risk of significant paternal depression increased by three times when the mother experienced slight depression.[11] When the mother experienced moderate to severe depression, the risk of significant paternal depression increased by eight times.11 It was found that the father’s symptom severity was strongly associated with the mother’s depressive symptoms, neuroticism, and the quality of the marital relationship.[12]

enter site Overall, Paulson states that the literature regarding paternal depression is lacking, and more research should be completed concerning the topic.3

bdswiss app auf deutsch [1] Gotlib IH, Whiffen VE, Mount JH, et al. Prevalence rates and demographic characteristics associated with depression in pregnancy and the postpartum. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1989;57:269-274.

source link [2] Beardslee WR, Versage EM, Gladstone TR. Children of affectively ill parents: a review of the past 10 years. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1998;37:1134-1141.

http://www.banmark.fi/?aftepatius=ayudas-para-mujeres-solteras-con-hijos-en-puerto-rico&0e7=84 [3] Paulson, J.F. (2010, Feb. 6). Focusing on Depression in Expectant and New Fathers: Prenatal and Postpartum Depression Not Limited to Mothers. Psychiatric Times. Retrieved from http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/depression/content/article/10168/1519072

http://backyardgardensjoseph.com/?bioener=dating-white-guys-reddit&5d2=91 [4] Bennett HA, Einarson A, Taddio A, et al. Prevalence of depression during pregnancy: systematic review. Obstet Gynecol. 2004;103:698-709.

[5] Goodman JH. Paternal postpartum depression, its relationship to maternal postpartum depression, and implications for family health. J Adv Nurs. 2004;45: 26-35.

[6] Lamb ME. The Role of the Father in Child Development. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley; 2004.

[7] Ramchandani P, Stein A, Evans J, O’Connor TG; ALSPAC study team. Paternal depression in the postnatal period and child development: a prospective population study. Lancet. 2005;365:2201-2205.

[8] Bronte-Tinkew J, Moore KA, Matthews G, Carrano J. Symptoms of major depression in a sample of fathers of infants: sociodemographic correlates and links to father involvement. J Fam Issues. 2007;28: 61-99.

[9] Paulson JF, Dauber S, Leiferman JA. Individual and combined effects of maternal and paternal depression on parenting behavior. Pediatrics. 2006;118:659-668.

[10] Deater-Deckard K, Pickering K, Dunn JF, Golding J. Family structure and depressive symptoms in men preceding and following the birth of a child. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood Study Team. Am J Psychiatry. 1998;155:818-823.

[11] Goodman JH. Paternal postpartum depression, its relationship to maternal postpartum depression, and implications for family health. J Adv Nurs. 2004;45: 26-35.

[12] Dudley M, Roy K, Kelk N, Bernard D. Psychological correlates of depression in fathers and mothers in the first postnatal year. J Reprod Infant Psychol. 2001;19:187-202. depression.

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