Social Aspects of Suicidal Behavior & Prevention in Early Life

Risk Factors of Suicide Behavior Growing

source url Suicide is the fourth most common cause of death among adolescents aged 10 to 14, and the third most common cause of death for young adults aged 15 to 24.[1] Over the past 20 years, clinical knowledge regarding risk factors of suicidal behavior in youth has grown, understanding that psychiatric or mental disorders and a past history of suicidal behavior are among the most distinct predictors.[2] Recently, the role of social and cultural factors in suicidal behavior have become a topic of interest, as these factors can impact a youth’s overall wellbeing.2 In their article, “Social Aspects of Suicidal Behavior and Prevention in Early Life: A Review,” Maya Amitai, M.D. of Israel’s Meha Mental Health Center’s Child and Adolescent Division and Alan Apter, M.D. of the Department of Psychiatry at The Feinberg Child Study Center of Schneider Children’s Medical Center of Israel, discuss several social and cultural factors that lead to youth suicidal behavior: gender, family factors, physical and sexual abuse, change of residence, socioeconomic class, sexual orientation, and bullying.2

Gender & Suicide

http://hickscountry.com/media/hicks-and-melissa-williams-3/feed/ According to Amitai and Apter, rates of suicide are higher in adolescent boys than they are in adolescent girls, while rates of suicidal ideation and attempted suicide are higher in adolescent girls than they are in adolescent boys.[3] Boys have higher suicidal intent, more violent methods, a higher prevalence of antisocial disorder and substance abuse, and more vulnerability to stressors.[4] Also, boys have a more difficult time communicating their emotions and asking for help.[5] Amitai and Apter state that certain risk factors impact each gender differently.2 Some may impact only females, while others impact only males. For example, depression impacts girls more than boys, while substance abuse and conduct disorder are more strongly associated with male suicidal behavior.2 Therefore, preventative methods for each gender may be different.2 Adolescent boys should be encouraged to communicate their distress, and adolescent girls should be encouraged to adopt healthier coping mechanisms.2

Social Aspects of Suicide Behavior

binäre optionen wann einsteigen suicideResearch has shown that family environment can be a predictor of suicidal behavior in youth. Family risk factors include family history of suicidal behavior, family discord, loss of a parent, poor parent-child relationship, and maltreatment.[6] Also, evidence states that suicidal behavior often runs in families and may be genetic.[7] Preventative programs should focus on early identification of youths who are part of dysfunctional families.2

buy generic Seroquel pills Amitai and Apter state that there is a distinct association between childhood abuse and neglect and youth suicidality.[8] Exposure to physical and sexual abuse leads to diminished mental health, and the risk of suicidality increases if the abuse is repeated over time.[9] According to Garnefski and Arends, sexually abused boys are at a greater risk of suicide attempts than sexually abused girls. Still, all abused youth should be evaluated for suicidal behaviors.[10] Amitai and Apter state that trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy is an effective treatment of psychological distress for abused children.[11]

http://heatherbestel.com/robots.txt According to Qin and colleagues, children who frequently move residences are more likely to have suicidal behaviors.[12] Some studies reported rates of suicide were higher in females compared to males.[13] Also, adolescents who engage in suicidal behaviors tend to be from a lower socioeconomic class than youths who do not.[14]

http://flywind.com.br/bakester/8664 Youths who are of a same-sex orientation are also at a greater risk of suicidal behaviors than youths who are heterosexual.2 One study stated that gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths who experienced family rejection when announcing their orientation are eight times as likely to attempt suicide than adolescents who do not experience rejection.[15] Therefore, providing gay and lesbian youths support with identity issues will help prevent suicide.2

http://creatingsparks.com.gridhosted.co.uk/?endonezit=what-are-binary-options-investopedia'A=0 Bullying and victimization, according to Klomek and colleagues, increases the chances of a youth attempting suicide.[16] For boys, bullying was associated with suicide, while victimization was not. On the other hand, victimization was associated with suicide, while bullying was not.[17] In today’s technological world, youths are subject to cyber-bullying as well as other forms; therefore, interventions that minimize the effects should be a priority of school and community authorities.[18]

Preventative Measures for Suicidal Risk Needed

glasgow free dating site According to Amitai and Adept, little is known regarding effective preventative measures for the previously stated social and cultural factors that increase youth suicidality.2 School-based prevention programs may be a good way to address such problems, as staff may be able to spot students who seem to be in trouble and refer them to mental health services.2 Still, further research is needed to understand suicidal behaviors in youths.2 Further understanding the risk factors involved may lead to preventative treatments.2

https://www.mccarthyarchitecture.com/indigose/10472 [1] Anderson R.N., Smith B.L. Deaths: Leading causes for 2001. Natl.Vital Stat. Rep. 2003;52:1–85.

[2] Amitai, M. and Apter, A. (2012, March). Social Aspects of Suicidal Behavior and Prevention in Early Life: A Review. Int J Environ Res Public Health 9(3): 985-994.

[3] Eaton D.K., Kann L., Jinchen S., Shanklin S., Ross J., Hawkins J., Harris W.A., Lowry R., McManus T., Chyen D., et al. Youth risk behavior surveillance—United States, 2007. MMWR Surveill. Summ. 2008;57:1–131.

[4] Brent D.A., Baugher M., Bridge J., Chen T., Chiappetta L. Age- and sex-related risk factors for adolescent suicide. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry. 1999;38:1497–1505.

[5] Levi Y., Horesh N., Fischel T., Treves I., Or E., Apter A. Mental pain and its communication in medically serious suicide attempts: An “impossible situation”. J. Affect. Disord. 2008;111:244–250.

[6] Bridge J.A., Goldstein T.R., Brent D.A. Adolescent suicide and suicidal behavior. J. Child. Psychol. Psychiatry. 2006;47:372–394.

[7] Brent D.A., Mann J.J. Family genetic studies, suicide, and suicidal behavior. Am. J. Med.Genet. C. 2005;133C:13–24. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.30042.

[8] Brodsky B.S., Mann J.J., Stanley B., Tin A., Oquendo M., Birmaher B., Greenhill L., Kolko D., Zelazny J., Burke A.K., et al. Familial transmission of suicidal behavior: Factors mediating the relationship between childhood abuse and offspring suicide attempts. J. Clin. Psychiatry. 2008;69:584–596.

[9] Brezo J., Paris J., Vitaro F., Hebert M., Tremblay R.E., Turecki G. Predicting suicide attempts in young adults with histories of childhood abuse. Br. J. Psychiatry. 2008;193:134–139.

[10] Garnefski N., Arends E. Sexual abuse and adolescent maladjustment: Differences between male and female victims. J. Adolesc. 1998;21:99–107.

[11] Chaffin M., Friedrich B. Evidence-based treatments in child abuse and neglect. Child.Youth Serv.Rev. 2004;26:1097–1113.

[12] Qin P., Mortensen P.B., Pedersen C.B. Frequent change of residence and risk of attempted and completed suicide among children and adolescents. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry. 2009;66:628–632.

[13] Haynie D.L., South S.J., Bose S. Residential mobility and attempted suicide among adolescents: An individual-level analysis. Sociol. Q. 2006;49:693–721.

[14] Ayton A., Rasool H., Cottrell D. Deliberate self-harm in children and adolescents: Association with social deprivation. Eur. Child. Adolesc. Psychiatry. 2003;12:303–307.

[15] Ryan C., Huebner D., Diaz R.M., Sanchez J. Family rejection as a predictor of negative health outcomes in white and Latino lesbian, gay, and bisexual young adults. Pediatrics. 2009;123:346–352. doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-3524.

[16] Klomek A.B., Sourander A., Niemela S., Kumpulainen K., Piha J., Tamminen T., Almqvist F., Gould M.S. Childhood bullying behaviors as a risk for suicide attempts and completed suicides: A population-based birth cohort study. J. Am. Acad. Child. Adolesc. Psychiatry. 2009;48:254–261.

[17] Eaton D.K., Kann L., Jinchen S., Shanklin S., Ross J., Hawkins J., Harris W.A., Lowry R., McManus T., Chyen D., et al. Youth risk behavior surveillance—United States, 2007. MMWR Surveill. Summ. 2008;57:1–131.

[18] Mann J.J., Apter A., Bertolote J., Beautrais A., Currier D., Haas A., Hegerl U., Lonnqvist J., Malone K., Marusic A., et al. Suicide prevention strategies: A systematic review. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 2005;294:2064–2074. Suicide.

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