What is Inhalant Abuse?

What is the Abuse of Inhalants?

http://sofiakarlsson.com/?dsjid=bin%C3%A4re-optionen-demokonto-unbegrenzt&1d4=68 Inhalant abuse—known by several different names, such as volatile substance abuse, solvent abuse, sniffing, huffing, and bagging—is the inhalation of a substance to achieve an altered mental state.[1] Inhalant abuse is a well-known, worldwide problem that mainly effects the younger population, as well as minority and marginalized populations.[2] Lola Baydala of the Canadian Paediatric Society describes the different aspects of inhalant abuse and recommends treatment options in her article, “Inhalant Abuse.”1

Who Abuses Inhalants?

click inhalantsAccording to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration’s 2007 US survey, 1.1 percent of youths, aged 12 to 13, had used inhalants within the past month, while 66.3 percent of youths aged 12 years and older were only children when they first used inhalants.[3] In fact, 10.7 percent reported that inhalants were their first drug of abuse.3 Baydala states that inhalant abuse is more prevalent among high school dropouts, persons who have been physically or sexually abused, those who have been incarcerated, and the homeless.1 It is common amongst rural communities, especially those with high rates of unemployment, poverty, and violence.2

What are “Inhalants?”

source Inhalants are a group of pharmacologically diverse products, selected for their low price and ease of availability.1 US Poison Control Centers report the most frequently abused substances between 1996 and 2001 were gasoline, paint, propane/butane, air fresheners, and formalin.[4]  Gasoline, air fresheners, and propane/butane are reported to have caused the most deaths.4

Learn how to currency trade me Baydala states that there are several ways of inhaling substances:1

  • Sniffing (from the container holding the substance)
  • Bagging (using a plastic or paper bag)
  • Huffing (using a rag doused in the substance)
  • Glading (from air freshener aerosols)
  • Dusting ( from spraying aerosol cleaners into the mouth or nose)

valutahandel program It will often take more than one inhalation for the abuser to feel the full effects desired; therefore, bagging and huffing are the most popular routes of abuse, as they allow the greatest concentration of inhalant to be obtained at once.[5] Regarding short-term effects, abusers will often feel a euphoric and stimulating effect, followed by hallucinations, slurred speech, dizziness, disorientation, drowsiness, and sleep.[6] Drowsiness and headache can continue for hours due to residual intoxication.6 “Sudden Sniffing Death Syndrome” is also possible, and is a leading cause of death among inhalant abusers.1

Effects of Inhalants and its Treatment

les sites de rencontres franГ§ais gratuit The long-term effects of abusing inhalants are severe.1 In fact, chronic abuse often leaves irreversible neurological and neuropsychological effects.[7] According to Baydala, motor, cognitive, and sensory deficits are common, as well as cardiomyopathy, emphysema-like abnormalities, other pulmonary problems, and hepatitis.1 Women often experience more menstrual disorders, and, if pregnant, may be at an increased risk of abortion.[8] In newborns who were exposed to inhalant abuse during pregnancy, it is possible for them to have “Fetal Solvent Syndrome” with congenital neurological defects.[9] For youths who continuously abuse inhalants, poor school behavior, criminal behavior, and low self-esteem are common.1

How to find a job in australia online Oftentimes, inhalant abusers do not seek medical attention, with the exception of related injury or illness.1 However, acute inhalant intoxication is treated with attentive and supportive care.[10] Management of intoxication may include the use of antiarrhythmics or bata-blockers, for the stabilization of the heart.[11] Also, tests to determine the status of the liver, kidney, heart, and lungs are important.[12] Withdrawal also is common, with symptoms such as nausea, anorexia, sweating, tics, sleep disturbance, and mood swings.[13] Treatment programs should include detoxification, a peer-patient advocate system, development of skills and strengths, and help transitioning back into the community. Family therapy is also helpful.[14]

http://agencijapragma.com/?kiopoa=opzioni-digitali-live-dem&d7a=99 Overall, more research needs to be completed to gain a better understanding of inhalant abuse and to learn more about treatments that are effective.1

http://palsambleu.fr/?dimyrewsy=site-de-rencontre-avis-2012&05c=2b [1] Baydala, LT. (2010 September). Inhalant Abuse. Paediatr Child Health; 15(7): 443-448.

[2] Kozel N, Sloboda Z, De La Rosa M, editors. Epidemiology of inhalant abuse: An international perspective. (NIDA Research Monograph 148). < www.nida.nih.gov/pdf/monographs/148.pdf>

[3] Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Results from the 2007 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National findings. < www.oas.samhsa.gov/NSDUH/2k7NSDUH/2k7results.cfm>

[4] Spiller HA. Epidemiology of volatile substance abuse (VSA) cases reported to US poison centers. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2004;30:155–65.

[5] Crocetti M. Inhalants. Pediatr Rev. 2008;29:33–4.

[6] Brouette T, Anton R. Clinical review of inhalants. Am J Addict. 2001;10:79–94.

[7] Meadows R, Verghese A. Medical complications of glue sniffing. South Med J. 1996;56:455–62.

[8] Jones HE, Balster RL. Inhalant abuse in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 1998;25:153–67.

[9] Lin H, Liu C, Jow G, Tang C. Toluene disrupts synaptogenesis in cultured hippocampal neurons. Toxicol Lett. 2009;184:90–6.

[10] Muller AA, Muller GF. Inhalant abuse. J Emerg Nurs. 2006;32:447–8.

[11] Shepherd RT. Mechanism of sudden death associated with volatile substance abuse. Hum Toxicol. 1989;8:287–91.

[12] Brouette T, Anton R. Clinical review of inhalants. Am J Addict. 2001;10:79–94.

[13] Keriotis AA, Updahyaya HP. Inhalant dependence and withdrawal symptoms. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2000;39:679–80.

[14] Jumper-Thurman P, Plested B, Beauvais F. Treatment strategies for volatile solvent abusers in the United States. NIDA Res Monogr. 1995;148:250–9. Inhalants.

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