The Clinical Implications of Cocaine Dependence

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Cocaine and Medical Risks

enter site A devastating disorder, cocaine dependence is associated with a variety of medical and psychosocial risks.[1] This disorder consists of distinct clinical components that are intermixed within the cycle of addiction.1 As cocaine activates the pleasure centers of the brain—overtaking thoughts, behaviors, and priorities—there is a distinct compulsion to use again.1 However, repeated use dysregulates the brain’s pleasure centers, leading to addiction through craving and impaired function.1

CocaineCocaine-Induced Euphoria

grafico banca popolare di milano Cocaine-induced euphoria exceeds that of the normal range of human experience, settling deep into the memory.1 It lures users to use again. Aside from euphoria, cocaine also delivers a variety of stimulant effects, including increased energy and sexual arousal.1 As addiction progresses, users find it hard to subside their cravings, risking job loss, family turmoil, incarceration, medical problems, and death.1

http://creatingsparks.com/?b4b=ce Euphoria from cocaine use is due to increased dopamine neurotransmission.1 The level of dopamine in the brain increases, yet the dopamine transporters or reuptake sites that clear dopamine from the synapse, are blocked.1 This leaves an abundance of dopamine in the brain, producing a euphoria.1

Cocaine Withdrawal

go here When users are coming down off their high, they may experience withdrawal symptoms, such as depression, lethargy, poor concentration, low self-esteem, hypersomnia, a decrease in psychomotor skills, and sluggish thoughts.1 However, unlike the withdrawal from alcohol, opioids, and sedatives, cocaine withdrawal has never been deemed severe enough to warrant medical detoxification.1 It has been found, though, that withdrawal symptoms are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to the clinical implications of cocaine addiction.1 Neuroimaging has found altered neurotransmitter and receptor levels, changes in gene expression, and elevated reward thresholds in individuals with a cocaine-addicted brain.1 Unfortunately, all of this leads to poor clinical outcomes.1

here Reducing these cocaine-induced neuroadaptations with dopamine/glutamate agonists or GABA/dynorphin antagonists may help to normalize the brain again and improve clinical outcomes.1 However, this has not been researched adequately and is not a completely reliable treatment.1

source Regular cocaine use has been found to dysregulate brain pleasure centers that have evolved to ensure human survival.1 Although no pharmacological treatments are currently available, therapy remains the most effective way to achieve good clinical outcomes.1 Currently, more research is underway to develop pharmacological treatments that help improve outcomes and maintain sobriety.1

enter [1] Dackis, C. A. (2007, March 1). The Neurobiology of Cocaine Dependence and Its Clinical Implications. opcje binarne bdswiss Psychiatric Times. Retrieved September 25, 2013, from http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/cocaine-related-disorders/neurobiology-cocaine-dependence-and-its-clinical-implications/page/0/1

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